The blissful afterglow you feel post run or intense gym sesh is one of the main reasons why people work out in the first place. But how intense or long does a workout have to be before this so-called “high” kicks in? And WTF are endorphins exactly anyway?
I took these questions and more to J. Kip Matthews, PhD, a sports psychologist. In other words, an endorphins expert. He’s well-versed in brain-body connections not only with endorphins but other neurotransmitters, too. He also works with elite athletes of all types helping them deal with stress. (Dancing gracefully in front of hundreds of people or playing tennis in front of a full stadium can 100 percent affect your performance.)
Here, Dr. Matthews gives the low-down on everything you need to know about endorphins—including how exercise is connected.
What are endorphins?
“Endorphins are neurochemicals produced in the body in the pituitary gland in response to stress and pain,” Dr. Matthews explains. In layman’s terms, they’re kind of like natural painkillers. “They interact with opiate receptors in the body, which then minimizes our pain experience.”
Dr. Matthews says that scientists didn’t actually discover endorphins until the ’70s when a lot of research was being done on heroin and morphine addiction. “They were noticing that there were some specific receptors in our body that the heroin and morphine were acting on, and it didn’t make sense as to why we had these opioid receptions in our bodies,” he says. “That then led to the discovery of endorphins. And in fact, our bodies do produce these chemicals that have this painkilling aspect.”
Since then, researchers have found that there are actually a lot of activities that can cause an endorphin boost in the body: meditation, laughing, eating chocolate or spicy food, and even childbirth. And exercise of course is another big way.
The connection between exercise and endorphins
“In some ways, endorphins get too much of the credit for people having a blissful feeling when they exercise,” Dr. Matthews says. That’s because they don’t work alone: serotonin and norphenylephrine, two other feel-good neurotransmitters, are also released during workouts. According to Dr. Matthews, a serotonin and norphenlyephrine boost actually happens before an endorphin one, in about 30 or 45 minutes of exercise. But the actual rise in endorphins doesn’t really happen until after an hour of intense exercise.
“After an hour or more of exercise, then the body has experienced significant enough stress that the endorphins kick in,” he says. Remember: endorphins are a stress response, released to reduce pain. So you have to get your body to a pain point to actually get that release. Here’s the tricky part though: If you put too much stress on your body, Dr. Matthews says the response can backfire and your hard workout can leave you feeling aggravated or in a bad mood. His best advice for reaching that sweet spot: Listen to your body.
“While meditation, laughing, or eating chocolate do raise endorphin levels, they don’t raise them as much as exercising intensely for an hour or more.”
You may be wondering why it takes so long to raise endorphins during exercise when other ways, like eating chocolate or laughing, obviously don’t take as long. “That has more to do with the level of endorphins,” Mr. Matthews explains. “While meditation, laughing, or eating chocolate do raise endorphin levels, they don’t raise them as much as exercising intensely for an hour or more.”
While running often gets the most credit for giving a “high,” Dr. Matthews says it can really be done with any intense, hour-long workout. “The reason why running is given so much attention is because when all the information about endorphins was coming out in the ’70s, long-distance running was starting to take off as a popular exercise,” he explains. While long, hard workouts will get you that release, he points out that new evidence suggests that you can still raise endorphin levels with just 15 minutes of exercise several times a week. It might not be the same sharp boost, but it will be a steady, natural upper.
The benefits of raising endorphins through exercise
According to Dr. Matthews, the rise in endorphins during exercise can be so powerful that studies have shown it can be just as effective as counseling or medication when it comes to lowering depression. (This doesn’t mean you shouldn’t see a psychologist or consider a prescription drug—always consult a doctor before deciding a course of treatment—but it does mean you might want to consider an Rx of working out to see if it helps.)
Regularly getting that hit of endorphins can help your body respond better to other types of stress, too. “The more sedentary we become—not getting regular exercise—the less efficient the body is at dealing with stressors that are being placed on it,” Mr. Matthews says. “By exercising frequently for a longer duration, the body becomes a lot more efficient at handling other types of stress that are put on the body.”
Unlike outside uppers—like the opioids that sparked researchers to research endorphins more in the first place—Dr. Matthews says there’s no danger of getting addicted to an endorphin high. “Because this is something that happens naturally in the body, that isn’t going to happen. That doesn’t mean someone can’t get addicted to exercise,” he says. “But exercise addiction is more psychological, similar to a gambling or shopping addiction.”
With no downside and all the benefits to gain, there is something to long, intense workouts after all. Not only is the high real, but it will do your mind and body both a lot of good.
Originally published July 27, 2018. Updated September 18, 2019.
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