How is corruption started in our society

  • ’Rotten boroughs’ were constituencies that had a very small electorate, and could thus be used by a wealthy patron to secure influence; at the turn of the 19th century in immigrant US cities, ‘machine politics’ involved hierarchical political organizations that provided social services and jobs in exchange for votes. For more information, see: Aidt, T. S. (2003). Economic analysis of corruption: a survey. The Economic Journal, 113(491), F632-F652.

  • The list of sources that are considered (subject to availability for each country) are: African Development Bank – Governance Ratings, Bertelsmann Foundation – Sustainable Governance Indicators, Bertelsmann Foundation – Transformation Index, IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook, Political Risk Services – Country Risk Guide, World Bank – Country Performance and Institutional Assessment, World Economic Forum – Executive Opinion Survey, World Justice Project – Rule of Law Index, Economist Intelligence Unit – Country Risk Assessment, Global Insight – Country Risk Ratings, Political and Economic Risk Consultancy – Asian Intelligence, Freedom House – Nations in Transit

  • Methodological details are available from Transparency International

  • Copyright¬© 2016 Mintz Group LLC. All Rights Reserved. The information and graphics contained in this map are copyrighted and may not be distributed, modified, reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of Mintz Group LLC.

  • Fisman, R., & Miguel, E. (2007). Corruption, norms, and legal enforcement: Evidence from diplomatic parking tickets. Journal of Political economy, 115(6), 1020-1048.

  • This is Table D3 in OECD Government at a Glance (2009)

  • Glaeser, E. L., & Saks, R. E. (2006). Corruption in America. Journal of public Economics, 90(6), 1053-1072.

  • Transparency International defines accountability as “the concept that individuals, agencies and organisations (public, private and civil society) are held responsible for reporting their activities and executing their powers properly.”

  • Williams, A. (2015). A global index of information transparency and accountability. Journal of Comparative Economics, 43(3), 804-824.

  • Ferraz, C., & Finan, F. (2011). Electoral accountability and corruption: Evidence from the audits of local governments. The American Economic Review, 101(4), 1274-1311.

  • Olken, Benjamin A. (2007). “Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia.” Journal of Political Economy 115(2): 200-249.

  • This Policy Briefcase was issued in March 2008, and revised in May 2012. The data comes from Olken, Benjamin A. 2007. “Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia.” Journal of Political Economy 115(2): 200-249.

  • Fisman, R., & Miguel, E. (2007). Corruption, norms, and legal enforcement: Evidence from diplomatic parking tickets. Journal of Political economy, 115(6), 1020-1048.

  • Glaeser, E. L., & Saks, R. E. (2006). Corruption in america. Journal of public Economics, 90(6), 1053-1072.

  • Ferraz, C., & Finan, F. (2011). Electoral accountability and corruption: Evidence from the audits of local governments. The American Economic Review, 101(4), 1274-1311.

  • Olken, B. A. (2009). Corruption perceptions vs. corruption reality. Journal of Public economics, 93(7), 950-964.

  • The list of sources that are considered (subject to availability for each country) are: African Development Bank – Governance Ratings, Bertelsmann Foundation – Sustainable Governance Indicators, Bertelsmann Foundation – Transformation Index, IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook, Political Risk Services – Country Risk Guide, World Bank – Country Performance and Institutional Assessment, World Economic Forum – Executive Opinion Survey, World Justice Project – Rule of Law Index, Economist Intelligence Unit – Country Risk Assessment, Global Insight – Country Risk Ratings, Political and Economic Risk Consultancy – Asian Intelligence, Freedom House – Nations in Transit

  • Our articles and data visualizations rely on work from many different people and organizations. When citing this entry, please also cite the underlying data sources. This entry can be cited as:

    Esteban Ortiz-Ospina and Max Roser (2020) - "Corruption". Published online at OurWorldInData.org. Retrieved from: 'https://ourworldindata.org/corruption' [Online Resource]

    BibTeX citation

    @article{owidcorruption, author = {Esteban Ortiz-Ospina and Max Roser}, title = {Corruption}, journal = {Our World in Data}, year = {2020}, note = {https://ourworldindata.org/corruption} }